Rowing

Submitted by admin on Tue, 06/25/2019 - 12:38
Referenced Sport Seasons
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Rowing
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Medal Tally
Bronze Medals
14
Silver Medals
15
Gold Medals
11
Sport Introduction

Australia and Olympic Rowing

Australia first sent rowers to the Olympics at Stockholm in 1912. The team of the eight who had won the Henley Regatta en route to Sweden qualified Australia's first team, but a change of personnel between Henley and Stockholm resulted in the crew losing some form and it missed a medal, whilst the British crew that they defeated at Henley won the gold.

Australia has forged a very proud history in Olympic rowing, particular in the sculling events. The legendary Henry ‘Bobby’ Pearce won the single sculls at Amsterdam 1928 and Los Angeles 1932. Mervyn Wood won the single sculls at London in 1948 and finished second at Helsinki four years later.

At the Melbourne 1956 Games, Wood and Murray Riley won the bronze medal in the double sculls. Wood is the only person to carry the Australian flag at two opening ceremonies, in Helsinki and Melbourne. In Melbourne Stuart Mackenzie finished second in the single sculls behind the great Vyacheslav Ivanov of the USSR. Mackenzie then proceeded to win the Diamond Sculls at Henley, arguably the unofficial World Championship at the time, for six consecutive years from 1957.

Australia’s first medal (a bronze) by a sweep-oared boat came with the eights in Helsinki 1952. The eights won bronze medals again at Melbourne 1956, Los Angeles 1984, Athens 2004 and silver medals at Mexico City 1968 and Sydney 2000. Australia’s women rowers first won a medal, a bronze, at Los Angeles 1984 by the coxed four. Megan Marcks (then Still) and Kate Allen (then Slatter) won a gold medal in the coxless pairs in Atlanta 1996 and Slatter joined with Rachael Taylor to finish second in the same event in 2000. 

The famous “Oarsome Foursome”  won the coxless fours in Barcelona in 1992 and Atlanta 1996, thereby becoming the first Australian sweep-oared crew to win an Olympic title.

At the London Games in 2012 Drew Ginn who was part of the crew in 1996 combined with Josh Dunkley-Smith, Will Lockwood and James Chapman to win silver after a hard fought battle with hosts Great Britain. It was Ginn’s fourth Olympic medal and this combined with his previous three gold confirmed his place as Australia’s greatest rower.

Ginn's 1996 teammates Tomkins and Mike McKay also have won four medals each. Tomkins won gold medals as part of the "Oarsome Foursome" in Barcelona and Atlanta and with Ginn in the men's pair in Athens and a bronze medal with Matthew Long in the men's pair in Sydney. McKay also won gold medals as part of the “Oarsome Foursome” in 1992 and 1996, and silver and bronze medals in the eights in Sydney and Athens respectively.

Tomkins and Ginn combined again to win the men's coxless pairs at Athens 2004. At the Beijing Games in 2008, Ginn partnered with Duncan Free to win back-to-back titles. Ginn only missed Sydney 2000 through injury.

At Beijing 2008, Scott Brennan and David Crawshay won gold in the double sculls, while Kim Brennan (then Crow) was the standout for Australia at the London 2012 Games as she claimed silver in the women’s double sculls with Brooke Pratley and bronze in the single sculls. Kate Hornsey and Sarah Tait rowed superbly at London to take home silver in the pair. 

London silver medallist Brennan competed at her third Games at Rio 2016, breaking Australia’s gold medal rowing draught when she won gold in the women’s single sculls. The last time any Australian woman won an Olympic gold medal in rowing was in the women’s pair from the 1996 Atlanta Games. Brennan now owns a complete set of medals after bringing home silver and bronze from London.

The Olympic rowing regattas between 1996 and 2016 confirmed Australia’s position as a power in world rowing. Besides the medals listed previously, the men’s coxless pair (silver) and quadruple sculls (bronze) won medals in Atlanta. In Sydney, the men’s lightweight coxless four (silver), coxless pair (bronze) and coxless four (bronze) won medals.

In Athens the men's lightweight coxless four finished second and the women's quadruple sculls finished third. In Beijing as well as gold in the men's pair and double scull, the men's four of James Marburg, Matt Ryan, Cameron McKenzie-McHarg and Frances Hegerty won a surprise silver. Four years later in London the men’s quad scull crew of Karsten Forsterling, James McRae, Chris Morgan and Dan Noonan won bronze.

Joining Brennan on the podium at Rio 2016 were men’s quadruple sculls and the men’s four crews. The men’s quadruple sculls of James McRae, Cameron Girdlestone, Alexander Belonogoff and Karsten Forsterling upgraded Australia’s London 2012 bronze medal to a silver after a hard fought battle with the German crew who claimed back-to-back titles. Australia’s men’s four of Alex Hill, Josh Booth, Josh Dunkley-Smith and Will Lockwood battled valiantly with Great Britain in their final with the British coming out the ultimate victors and Australia winning silver.

Rowing was scheduled to appear at Athens in 1896 but bad weather caused its cancellation. It made its Olympic debut at Paris 1900. The seating configurations of the boats in the Olympic regatta have changed a number of times since then.

Women’s rowing was introduced at the Olympics at Montreal 1976 and lightweight rowing, for men and women, was introduced at Atlanta 1996.

Sport Format

In Olympic rowing 14 different boat classes are raced. Eight sculling events in which two oars are used, one in each hand and six sweep-oared events in which the rower uses one oar with both hands. The sculling boat classes are the single, the double and the quadruple sculls with crews of one, two or four athletes respectively, as well as the lightweight double. The sweep rowing categories include the pair, the four, the lightweight four (for men only) and the eight with coxswain, which is perhaps the most spectacular rowing event of all.

For the lightweight events (the lightweight women’s double and the lightweight men’s double and four) the average weight of a men’s crew must not exceed 70kg with the maximum weight for crew members being 72.5kg, for women the average weight of a crew must not exceed 57kg with the maximum weight for crew members being 59kg. All races cover a distance of 2000 metres.

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Modern Pentathlon

Submitted by admin on Tue, 06/25/2019 - 12:33
Referenced Sport Seasons
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Modern Pentathlon Preview Card
Medal Tally
Bronze Medals
0
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0
Gold Medals
1
Sport Introduction

Australia and Olympic Modern Pentathlon

Australia first came close to winning a modern pentathlon medal at Tokyo in 1964 with Peter Macken finishing fourth in the individual event and the team of Macken, Don McMiken and Duncan Page placing fifth. Macken competed at five Olympic Games from Rome in 1960 to Montreal in 1976. The first Australian to compete in the modern pentathlon was Forbes Carlisle, in Helsinki. Carlisle went on to become a world-famous swimming coach.

In Athens, Australia had an Olympic gold medallist in its modern pentathlon squad. Alexander Parygin won the event at Atlanta in 1996 whilst representing Kazakhstan. In 2004, Parygin, who was making a comeback to the sport, finished 27th.

The London 2012 Games saw the young duo of Chloe Esposito (20) and Ed Fernon (24) represent Australia in the event. Esposito performed strongly throughout and went into the final leg, the combined run and shoot event, only 40 seconds behind the leaders. she fought hard to make up the gap eventually claiming a top ten finish on debut as she crossed the line seventh. Fernon, also at his first Games, put together some of his best performances to finish in 27th despite being ranked outside the world's top 100.

With a Games under her belt Esposito returned to Olympic competition four years later at Rio where she competed alongside her brother Max. After performing consistently in the fencing, swimming and show jumping disciplines, Chloe entered the combined event in seventh, 45 seconds off the lead. A near flawless final discipline propelled her into the gold medal position as she became not only Australia's first modern pentathlon medallist but the nation's first Olympic Champion in the sport. Buoyed by his sister's stellar performance, Max went on to claim seventh in the men's event. .

Modern Pentathlon, comprising shooting, fencing, swimming, horse riding and running, was the invention of Pierre de Coubertin and entered the Olympic program at Stockholm 1912. He believed that it would test "a man’s moral qualities as much as his physical resources and skills, producing thereby a complete athlete.” The ancient Olympics had the pentathlon which comprised jumping, discus, javelin, running and wrestling.

From 1912 until London 1948, the event was only for individuals. During that time, the Swedes dominated by winning six of the seven gold medals and 15 out of the possible 21 medals awarded.

In Helsinki 1952, a three-man team event was added to the individual event. Both events were contested until the team event was dropped after Barcelona 1992. Atlanta 1996 saw the sport change from a five day event to all components taking place on one day. A women’s event was introduced at Sydney in 2000.

For London 2012, a new format was adopted for modern pentathlon with the running and shooting disciplines joining for one final run/shoot combined event. The format was successfully trialled at the Singapore 2010 Youth Olympics.

Sport Format

In one day each athlete will fence every other competitor in a round-robin format, swim 200 metres in seeded heats and show jump on a horse they have only known for 20 minutes. The final event is the combined run/shoot event. Pentathletes start on a handicap, based on scores after the previous 3 events. They run a short distance to the firing range, shoot unlimited times within 70 seconds to hit a target five times; run 1,000m, then shoot a further five targets; run a further 1,000m and shoot another 5 targets; then run the final 1,000m to the finish line.

 

Karate

Submitted by admin on Tue, 06/25/2019 - 12:29
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0
Sport Introduction

Australia and Olympic Karate

Australia will look to send its first representatives to the Tokyo 2020 Games in the newest Olympic sport of Karate. The sport was included on the Olympic programme after the 129th session of the International Olympic Committee, held in Rio de Janeiro on August 3rd 2016. The Executive Board of the IOC also agreed to include Karate on the programme of the Youth Olympic Games in Buenos Aires 2018.

Just months after Karate was added to the Olympic programme, the Australian Karate Federation hosted the largest sanctioned event ever in Australia. The Australian Open featured over 1300 entries and was run alongside the Oceania Championships that featured the nation’s best karate athletes taking on the region’s finest.

Olympic History

The sport of Karate will officially make its debut at the Tokyo 2020 Games, marking its first appearance at the Summer Olympics. The sport will feature two events, Kumite and Kata.

Sixty competitors will compete in Kumite while twenty contest Kata. Both divisions will have an equal gender split, with 30 men/women competing in Kumite and 10 men/women in Kata.

Sport Format

Kumite

Kumite provides Karate’s sport fighting element and competition will be held under a weight class system comprising of five division for both men and women;

Weight classes for men: −60 kg, −67 kg, −75 kg, −84 kg, and +84 kg
Weight classes for women: −50 kg, −55 kg, −61 kg, −68 kg, and +68 kg

In a kumite match, two athletes will face each other armed with gloves and foot protection. Over three minutes, athletes will aim to score points using kicks, punches, strikes, throws and sweeps. The sport of Karate is not full contact therefore athletes will have to show full self-control in each technique at all times.

Scoring
Competitors send tsuki, or punches, and keri, or kicks, with explosive force at the prescribed regions of their opponent's body. However, a tsuki or keri never actually hits the opponent because competitors perform every tsuki and keri with absolute control, enabling them to stop the motion suddenly only millimetres before coming into contact with their opponent. Competitors switch between attacking and defending so instantaneously that only very observant spectators are able to discern which competitor has succeeded in completing a tsuki or keri.

There are four ways of determining victory or defeat: (1) a lead of eight points scored within the prescribed duration of the match determines the scorer as the winner; (2) withdrawal from the match, rule violation, or disqualification by one competitor determines the other as the winner; (3) an advantage in points scored by the end of the prescribed duration of the match determines the scorer as the winner; or (4) in the case of a tied score at the end of the prescribed duration of the match, a decision by the judges determines the winner.

Kata
Kata serves as the solo representation of Karate’s self-defence stung together into a performance routine usually lasting two to three minutes. Competitors are judged on several technical and physical criteria including; speed, strength, breathing, balance and rhythm. Kata at the Olympic Games will be divided into male and female classes.

Scoring
Competitors are judged on the speed and power of their tsuki and keri, and are also required to show their understanding of the meaning, or principle, carried by the kata they demonstrate.

Under conventional competition rules, one competitor is assigned a blue belt and the other a red belt, and each take turns demonstrating his or her kata. The outcome of the competition is determined under a flag system, where five judges who each have a blue flag and a red flag raise either to signal which competitor, they believe, won: the one with more flags raised in his or her favour is declared the winner. However, to provide more clarity regarding the judges' views, discussions on applying a scoring system where victory or defeat is determined by adding up the points that each judge gave each competitor are being held for the Tokyo 2020 Games.

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IOC Selects Milan-Cortina to host Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games in 2026

Submitted by admin on Tue, 06/25/2019 - 12:29
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Opening Ceremony PyeongChang 2018
Article Introduction

The Australian Olympic Committee has congratulated Milan-Cortina after the IOC Session in Lausanne today selected the host of the 2026 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games.

Content

IOC: The Australian Olympic Committee has congratulated Milan-Cortina after the IOC Session in Lausanne today selected the host of the 2026 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games.

There were two candidates that put their names forward for the Games – Stockholm–Åre, Sweden and Milan-Cortina, Italy.

The IOC Session heard supporting addresses from the Prime Ministers of both countries, IOC Members, Mayors, champion Olympians from both Sweden and Italy, while Crown Princess Victoria, the heir to the Swedish throne, also travelled to Lausanne to bolster Stockholm’s bid.

This will be the third time Italy has hosted the Winter Olympic Games – Cortina d’Ampezzo 1956 and Turin in 2006.

AOC President and IOC Member John Coates says both bids embraced the principles of Olympic Agenda 2020, the New Norm, designed to create flexibility and reduce the costs of bidding for and hosting Olympic Games.

“Both presentations demonstrated each bidder well and truly embraced the IOC’s New Norm approach to make the Olympic Games more affordable, more flexible and more sustainable.

“The use of existing venues across multiple locations, and in Stockholm’s case, another country (Latvia), was promoted by both bids. Consequently, the cost of staging the Games in 2026 is projected to be 20% cheaper than the preceding Games in Beijing (2022) and PyeongChang (2018).

“Importantly, each bid involved a unified approach from all levels of government – cities, provinces and national governments, as well as the support of community and business.

“It was clear the community support and engagement in both instances was outstanding,” Mr Coates concluded.

Judo

Submitted by admin on Tue, 06/25/2019 - 12:28
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Medal Tally
Bronze Medals
2
Silver Medals
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Gold Medals
0
Sport Introduction

Australia and Olympic Judo

Australia has competed in every Olympic judo competition since the Tokyo 1964 Games where Ted Boronovskis won a bronze medal in the open category. Maria Pekli matched that achievement in the women's 59 kilogram category at Sydney 2000. It is also worth noting that in the women's judo demonstration event at Seoul 1988, Suzanne Williams won a gold medal but this does not count towards Australia’s medal tally.

Daniel Kelly made his fourth Olympic Games appearance at the London 2012 Games as a part of the six strong team, bowing out in the round of 32. Second time Olympian Mark Anthony came away with Australia’s best result going down in the quarter finals before making it within one match of the bronze medal playoff in the repechage.

Kelly returned as a coach at the Rio 2016 Olympic Games where seven Olympic debutants, all under the age of 25, took to the mat including the nation's first set of brothers to compete in Olympic competition, Nathan and Josh Katz. Katharina Haecker and Jake Bensted progressed through to the second round to claim's Australia's best results at Rio, but the youthful team will no doubt be better for the experience as they look towards Tokyo 2020.

Olympic History

Judo is the first Olympic sport to have originated in Asia and is now the most popular martial art in the world, with 13 million participants in 111 countries. Judo made its Olympic debut, for men, at Tokyo in 1964 with three specific weight categories, plus an open category for competitors of any weight. After missing Mexico City 1968, the sport returned permanently to the Olympic program at Munich in 1972. Women’s judo became an Olympic sport at Barcelona 1992, after being a demonstration event at Seoul 1988.

Sport Format

There are 14 events on the judo program with seven events for men and women. The duration of the contests are five minutes (actual time), although the clock stops each time the referee interjects.

The objective in judo is to defeat an opponent by scoring the most points from throws or holds. A bout can also conclude when a player executes an ‘Ippon’ - the ultimate manoeuvre. This can be done by throwing the opponent onto his or her back with force, speed and control.

There is an elimination system of competition with double repechage. Contestants are divided into two tables (table A and table B) by means of a draw and an elimination system produces the two finalists. The two finalists compete for the gold and silver medals.

All competitors defeated by the group winners and runners up (A1, A2, B1 and B2), take part in the repechage of their respective pools to play off for bronze. Their final contest will be against B2 and A2. The respective winners of those contests are placed third, the two losers are placed fifth. The losers of the final repechage contests are placed seventh.

To be an Olympian

Submitted by admin on Tue, 06/25/2019 - 11:34
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Australia with the Olympic Rings
Article Introduction

"Once an Olympian - Always an Olympian" 

"Never Past - Never Former"

This phrase captures the spirit of the Olympians Clubs established in each state and territory to bring together Olympians in Australia.

Content

Amongst its objectives is to promote Olympism by undertaking and supporting activities which will progress the Olympic movement in Australia.

Find out what's happening in your state or territory or contact your respective Olympians Club President.

Herb Elliot - Athletics, Australia

It is the inspiration of the Olympic Games that drives people not only to compete but to improve, and to bring lasting spiritual and moral benefits to the athlete and inspiration to those lucky enough to witness the athletic dedication.

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Herb Elliot - Athletics, Australia

 

Michael Johnson - Athletics, USA

"The Olympics is the pinnacle, it is what every athlete in any sport that is included in the Olympics strives for and dreams about. It is a once in a lifetime opportunity that has the history behind it and what the Olympics stands for."

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Michael Johnson, Athletics - USA

 

Di Alagich – Football, Australia

"Being an Olympian was a special moment, I had wanted to be an Olympian since I was a little girl, so to reach your childhood dream was very special and is something nobody can ever take away from me."

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Di Alagich – Football, Australia

 

Simon Upton - Swimming, Australia

"From a young age I aspired to make the Olympics. I had three brothers, so was always very competitive, but making it seemed like a distant dream. So, to make the Olympics was very surreal, I loved being on the world’s biggest stage. Everything from the torch lighting to the Closing Ceremony was incredible to be a part of."

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Simon Upton - Swimming, Australia

 

Jason Day - Rowing, Australia

"Participating in an Olympic Games has been one of the best experiences in my life.  Very few people get the opportunity, and it really is a privilege that I never take for granted."

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Jason Day - Rowing, Australia

 

Kieran Hansen- Short Track Skating, Australia

"Being an Olympian has had a major influence in shaping my entire life and who I am as a person. Learning to deal with the highs and lows of being a competitive athlete and the life skills are learnt along the way have given me opportunities I probably wouldn’t have had otherwise."

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Kieran Hansen- Short Track Skating, Australia

 

Joseph Schooling - Swimming, Singapore

"What I loved about the Olympics is, it is not just about me. It’s all about my coaches, my friends, my family, they all believed that when I was a six-year-old kid I could win Olympic Gold, and I did."

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Joseph Schooling - Swimming, Singapore

 

Dawn Fraser - Swimming, Australia

"The Olympics remain the most compelling search for excellence that exists in sport, and maybe in life itself, and that’s why being an Olympian is so special."

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Dawn Fraser - Swimming, Australia

 

Mary Lou Retton - Gymnastics, USA

"There can be distractions, but if you're isolated from the heart of the Games, the Olympics become just another competition. For athletes, the Olympics are the ultimate test of their worth."

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Mary Lou Retton - Gymnastics, USA

 

Johnny Weir - figure skating, USA

"The Olympics are an event that few can fathom but all can enjoy, and that's why athletes work our whole lives to put on the greatest show on Earth."

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Johnny Weir - figure skating, USA

Hockey

Submitted by admin on Tue, 06/25/2019 - 10:53
Referenced Sport Seasons
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Medal Tally
Bronze Medals
5
Silver Medals
3
Gold Medals
4
Sport Introduction

Australia and Olympic Hockey

Australia’s record in Olympic hockey is exceptional. The first Australian men’s team competed at Melbourne 1956 and since then they have finished no lower than sixth. The Kookaburras won bronze medals at Tokyo 1964, Atlanta 1996, Sydney 2000, Beijing 2008 and London 2012, silver medals at Mexico City 1968, Montreal 1976 and Barcelona 1992 and finally the gold medal at Athens in 2004. The Australian men had stood on the podium at six consecutive Olympics. Whilst they unfortunately did not make the podium at Rio 2016, the men's team continued the top-six tradition, finishing in sixth position after the quarter-finals.

Women’s hockey was first played at Moscow 1980, but Australia did not compete until Los Angeles 1984. Following the tracks of the Kookaburras, the Hockeyroos won the Olympic title at Seoul 1988, Atlanta 1996 and Sydney 2000. Rechelle Hawkes was a member of each of these gold medal winning teams and read the Athletes’ Oath in the Opening Ceremony in Sydney. As a member of the team in Atlanta, Nova Peris became the first Indigenous athlete to win an Olympic gold medal. Since 2000 the Hockeyroos have recorded consistent results with fifth at the 2004, 2008 and 2012 Olympics. The consistent results continued at Rio 2016 with the women finishing sixth.

Olympic History

Men’s hockey was first played at the Olympics in London 1908, then at Antwerp 1920, and then again at Amsterdam 1928 after which it became a permanent fixture. Between them, India with seven wins and Pakistan with two wins won every Olympic title from 1928 through to Mexico City 1968. From Amsterdam 1928, until defeated by Pakistan in Rome in 1960, India won 30 straight games and scored almost 200 goals in the process. In the last 32 years, Western European teams, along with Australia, have become the powerhouses in the sport.

Sport Format

There are 11 players allowed on a hockey field, including the goalkeeper. Olympic rosters are limited to 16 players but substitutions can be made throughout the game. The format previously invovled two 35-minute halves however the format was changed to 15 minute quarters prior to Rio 2016, with a 2 minute break at after the first and third periods but teams are not allowed to leave the area of field of play.

If scores are level at the end of a final or play-off, matches go into extra time. Two, seven-and-a-half minute "sudden death" periods are played, with the first goal ending the match. If a result is still not reached each team selects five players for a penalty stroke shoot-out.

At the Olympic Games there are 12 teams in the men’s and women’s competition. Teams are split into two pools of six for the preliminary rounds. The top four teams in each pool proceed to the quarter-finals, with the remaining four teams eliminated at this stage. The winners of the quarter-finals progress to the semi-finals, the winners of which meet in the gold medal match. The losers of the semi-finals will play for the bronze medal.

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Handball

Submitted by admin on Tue, 06/25/2019 - 10:26
Referenced Sport Seasons
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Handball Hero Image
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Handball Hero Image
Medal Tally
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Sport Introduction

Australia and Olympic Handball

Australia’s men’s and women’s teams have never qualified for the Olympic handball competition at an away Games. Both teams competed at Sydney 2000 by virtue of Australia being the host nation but were unable to win a match.

Olympic History

Handball was originally played on a soccer field with eleven players per side. It was contested by men at Berlin 1936 and Germany claimed the first gold medal. Handball then disappeared from the Olympic program after World War II and its popularity began to wane.

Across Europe the harsher climate, particularly in Scandinavia, led to the creation of a seven-a-side indoor handball format. Handball returned to the Olympic program in this form at Munich 1972 for men only. Four years later in Montreal a women’s competition was pioneered. Both events have remained on the Olympic program ever since.

Sport Format

Handball is a fast-paced game involving two teams of seven players who pass, throw, catch and dribble a small ball with their hands while trying to score goals. The team with the most goals win the game. A game consists of two 30-minute halves with a 10-minute half-time break.

The court for handball is 40 metres long and 20 metres wide. The goal area is D-shaped, arcing from the corners to a straight line six metres in front of the goal. The arcing sides similarly create a six-metre distance from the nearest part of the goal at all points. Players cannot be inside the arc when they have a shot at goal.

The men’s tournament at the Games features 12 teams and the women’s tournament has 10 teams at the Olympic Games.

Gymnastics

Submitted by admin on Tue, 06/25/2019 - 10:24
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Sport Introduction

Australia and Olympic Gymnastics

The first Australian Olympic gymnasts competed in Melbourne in 1956. Ji Wallace won Australia’s first medal in gymnastics when he came second in the men’s trampoline in the discipline’s debut at the Sydney Games in 2000. At the London Olympics debutant Blake Gaudry looked on track to match the feats of Wallace, setting an Olympic record in his opening routine. But Gaudry tumbled during his second routine and missed the final.

Australia has never won a medal in artistic or rhythmic gymnastics, with a best placing of fifth by Lauren Mitchell on the floor in London- just 0.067 off a medal. Australia also placed sixth in the women's artistic team event at the Beijing Olympics and seventh at Barcelona 1992 and Sydney 2000.

Joshua Jefferis became Australia’s greatest male all round gymnast when he finished 19th in London, bettering the result of his idol and mentor Philippe Rizzo who was 30th in Sydney.

Olympic History

Gymnastics appeared in the first modern Olympic Games in Athens 1896. The sport has been on the Olympic program ever since, with women first competing in Amsterdam 1928.

It is one of only five sports to continually feature at the Olympics since Athens 1896. The others are athletics, cycling, fencing and swimming.

Rhythmic gymnastics slowly emerged from the shadow of the long-established artistic discipline to enter the Olympic program in 1984.

Trampoline competitions for both men and women were added as an Olympic gymnastics discipline and made their debut at the 2000 Sydney Games.

Sport Format

There are three disciplines in Olympic gymnastics: Artistic, Rhythmic and Trampoline. Gymnasts must be 16 to compete in the Olympic Games.

Artistic (men and women)

Men compete across six apparatus: Floor, Pommel Horse, Rings, Vault, Parallel Bars and High Bar. Women compete in Vault, Uneven Bars, Balance Beam and Floor.

Only 12 men's teams and 12 women's teams qualify for the Games. The maximum number of competitors on a team is five, with four competing on each event and three scores counting. The top eight teams advance to the final.

In addition, individual competitors from other countries may qualify, for a maximum of 98 men and 98 women.

The top 24 all-around gymnasts, maximum two per country, advance to the all-around final.

The top eight gymnasts on each individual apparatus, maximum two per country, advance to the finals. Gymnasts wishing to qualify to the vault final must show two vaults; only one counts toward team and all-around competition.

One panel of judges starts from 0, adding points for requirements, difficulty and connections. A second panel of judges starts from 10.0, and deducts for execution and artistry. The final score is determined by adding the difficulty score and the execution score. A top score is approximately between 14 and 16 points. Different from the past were a 10 was the perfect score.

Rhythmic (women only)

There are two gold medals contested under rhythmic gymnastics: individual all-around and the group competition.

In the individual all-around, 24 gymnasts compete using hand held apparatus – rope, hoop, ball, ribbon and clubs. Only four apparatus are contested at the Olympics and in London 2012 the apparatus contested will be ribbon, rope, clubs and ball.

There are two rounds of competition: the qualification and the final. The qualification round is held over two days, with gymnasts performing two apparatus per day. Scores from each routine are added and the top 10 advance to the final. Scores do not carry over. The order of gymnasts for the final is determined by a random draw. All finalists perform routines with each of the four apparatus, and whoever has the highest total score wins the gold medal.

The group competition consists of 12 groups that perform two routines, the first with five balls and the second with three ribbons and two hoops. The teams are ranked based on total points. The eight highest-ranked groups qualify for the final. Scores do not carry over. In the final, each group again performs with both sets of apparatus to achieve a total score (maximum of 60.0 points). The highest-scoring group in the final wins gold.

Trampoline (men and women)

The competition consists of a qualification and a final for men and women. A maximum of 32 competitors can qualify for trampoline at the Games - 16 men, 16 women. Countries are allowed a maximum of two athletes in each event.

All athletes present a compulsory routine (with 10 skills) and a voluntary routine (with 10 different skills without limitation) during qualification. The scores from the two routines are combined for an overall score.

The top eight competitors qualify for the final and perform only one voluntary routine of 10 different skills without limitations. The scores from the qualifiers do not carry over to the final.

Athletes are scored on difficulty and execution. For the compulsory routine, only two elements' difficulty values count toward the difficulty score. For voluntary routines, all 10 elements are counted.

Golf

Submitted by admin on Tue, 06/25/2019 - 10:18
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Sport Introduction

Australia and Olympic Golf

Golf was an Olympic sport in 1900 and 1904 but there were no Australian competitors in either competition. Golf returned to the Olympic programme at Rio 2016 and Australia had four athletes compete in the historic event. Marcus Fraser and Scott Henden contended the men’s competition, and Minjee Lee and Su Oh lined up in the women’s contest.

All four players missed out on medals, but Fraser, Lee and Oh were in contention in their final rounds. Fraser, the 38-year-old from Corowa, NSW, made history by becoming the first Australian golfer ever to strike a ball in Olympic competition. He proceeded to lead the tournament at the half way mark and well into the third round, eventually ending his debut Games tied for fifth place. Lee finished the tournament tied for sixth and Oh placed equal 13th.

Olympic History

Golf has featured on the Olympic programme twice before, in Paris 1900 and St. Louis 1904. In 1900 there were two golf events - one for gentlemen and one for ladies. The gentlemen’s event was made-up of three different competitions: a 36-hole event won by American Charles Sands; an 18-hole stroke play event won by teammate Albert Lambert; and a professional contest was played, but only two French pros took part. The ladies’ event was a 9-hole contest, won by Margaret Abbott of the US. This was the first time that women had competed in the Olympics Games. In 1904 only two countries competed in golf - the United States and Canada.

At the 2009 IOC Session in Copenhagen, golf was re-elected as an Olympic sport with a resounding 63 to 27 vote of support from IOC members. Golf returned to the Olympic programme in Rio de Janeiro 2016 as a result of a systematic review of the Olympic Programme where the members of the IOC cast a secret ballot for each of the 28 sports on the current summer program.

Sport Format

The International Golf Federation (IGF) recommended an Olympic format of 72-hole individual stroke play - mirroring the format used in major golf championships. It suggested a field of 60 players for each competition, based on World Golf Rankings. The process will guarantee the top-15 ranked players entry regardless of the number of players from their country, and then limit each country to a maximum of two competitors.

In the event of a tie for either first, second or third place, a three-hole playoff will determine the medal winner(s).